8 Important Examples Of Primary Prevention You Must Know

Examples of primary prevention
Examples of primary prevention

What are the examples of primary prevention of disease?


When we talk about diseases, there are two approaches that can be used.

One is curative. This entails treating a disease when it has occurred.

It is actually expensive and consumes or costs a lot of money.

Second is preventive. When we talk of disease prevention, what we mean is to put in measures to reduce the likelihood of the disease occurring.

In this blog post we are going to be talking about the primary prevention as well as the examples of primary level of disease prevention.

What are the types of disease prevention?

Disease prevention are classified into three types
1) primary prevention
2) secondary prevention
3) tertiary prevention

Note that some schools of thoughts also came up primordial prevention, which occurs first even before primary prevention, while some other schools of thought see Primordial prevention as part of primary prevention.

What is primary prevention of disease?

Primary prevention level of disease means anticipating where a disease might occur or the people that are more likely to be affected a disease and then taking measures to prevent the disease from occurring or even if it occurs, it does not occur as severely as it would have been.

That’s basically what primary level of prevention is.

Examples of primary level of prevention is what this blog post is all about.

Eight examples of primary prevention of disease.

1) Immunization

Immunization simply means introducing a vaccine or a chemical substance which makes the body to react and fight in a way as it should have done if it were infected with the actual disease.

The idea behind immunization is to make the body to respond and build up defenses against that particular disease.

At the end of the day, the body is able to form defenses and act as if it is the real organism.

What happens subsequently is that if the actual organism attacks the body, because of the defenses that the body has built up, it is now able to successfully fight and defend the against the diseases.

So the essence of immunization is to prevent disease.

Nigeria has a lot of immunizations at different ages for the child, beginning from birth.

For instance, BCG vaccine is given at birth.

Many of the immunization programs are targeted at children.

There are some also that are targeted at pregnant women too.

There are some vaccinations pregnant women are expected to take before delivery.

Why is immunization important?

Immunization is important because it is a cheap way of preventing disease in a large number of people.

Most times these drugs are given to the people free of charge.

So it’s very easy for them and cheap for them to access.

The effectiveness of immunization in preventing diseases is also impressive.

It is cheaper for both the individuals and the community as well as the country because of the time, manpower and other resources that have been saved had it been that they became infected with these diseases.

2) School health program.

When we talk of school health program, this is very important example of primary prevention.

A large number of Nigeria’s population is made up of young people and many of them are school age children.

This makes it important for health programs to actually go to the schools.

The idea behind school health programs is to create a healthful school environment where the children are able to maximize the health resources and develop both physically, mentally, socially and otherwise.

At these school health clinics, the vaccinations can also be given and there are other programs that are put in place in order to ensure good health and prevent the students from falling sick.

There are also nutritional programs, even school meal programs that go on in some of these schools from time to time.

Students also are taught healthy lifestyle habits, such as washing of hands with soap and water, diet, exercise, and some things to avoid that may be harmful to their health.

3) Community health outreach campaigns.

The essence of community outreach camp health campaigns is that it provides a better avenue to reach out to the community.

People are products of families.

The family is the smallest unit of the society

After the family, they get exposed to the wider society and they have even social associations they belong to, as well as religious groups.

They also interact with people at different places such as markets, town meetings, age geades and so on.

The idea behind in setting up community health outreach programs is because it is easier to reach out to the people and then you’re also able to get to know their customs and beliefs, some of which are in direct opposition with health standard health advice or practices.

During this community outreach campaigns, health talks are given on how to maximize healthy living.

They learn things such as handwashing nutrition, breastfeeding, how to take care of children, and how to stay safe from disease.

They also learn some things such as keeping a healthy environment and how to take care of an environment.

They are taught how to prevent diseases like gastroenteritis in children.

4) Maternal and Child Health

When we talk of primary prevention, maternal and childhood clinics are one of the most important examples of primary prevention of diseases.

These clinics, starting with maternal clinic, help to ensure that women’s health are optimized.

They also take care of pregnant women and ensure that during the pregnancy, they put in place all the measures that are needed in order to carry the pregnancy successfully to term without hitches.

They get antenatal medications. They also get checks or laboratory investigations to check up on their health status.

They also get preventive care advice, even immunization services and screenings for some diseases.

Then, concerning the children, these health clinics also operate child clinics.

They help to look at the children and ensure that their health is optimal.

They also advise the mother on how to properly take care of the child by breastfeeding and other services.

5) Disease surveillance

When we talk about disease surveillance, it is a way of keeping track of how some particular diseases occur within the community.

There are some diseases that are very important because of their effects.
Sometimes, a larger number of people that have these diseases do not survive.

There are also other diseases that cause high morbidity.

So there are some diseases that have been included in the disease surveillance system, meaning that health facilities are supposed to report on them from time to time or give notice about these diseases to the appropriate health authorities, so that action can be taken where necessary.

6) Nutrition education programs

When we talk about nutrition, a large number of people in our environment suffer from malnutrition.

Look for figures and quotes. So malnutrition is a growing problem, especially as the number of poor people in Nigeria keep increasing.

Poverty drives a lot of issues such as poor health.

Nutrition education is very important because the people are taught how to prepare the balanced diet or the food that can give their body the most nutrients it needs from just local sources or things they can get from around them.

They don’t need to spend so much money in order to eat healthy.

7) Sanitation programs.

When we talk of sanitation, it means keeping the environment clean and devoid of all harm or things that may cause it to be unsightly or cause disease, both to the people staying around there, as well as passers by.

Sanitation is a very important example of primary prevention in Nigeria.

In Nigeria, many people’s awareness about sanitation is not impressive. The behavior in terms of keeping the environment clean is also discouraging.

Some of the sanitation measures include the compulsory last day of the month sanitation, which was instituted in many states of the country.

Sadly, many people do not adhere to this.

This has a negative effect on the health or on the environment as you have bushes around, and the gutters are filled up with dirts and things that are not healthy.

At the end of the day, the health of the people around there is negatively affected.

As a primary preventive measure, putting more efforts into sanitation campaigns and involving people who live within those areas will be quite beneficial as it will
reduce the rate of disease carrying vectors such as flies, even rats around.

It will also result in a better aesthetic view of the community, as well as reduce the possibilities of disease outbreak.

It also reduces the rate of flooding which which one of the causes is drains and gutters that have been filled with rubbish.


8) HIV AIDS campaign

HIV AIDS is a problem which we will keep talking about for a long time.

This is because of the effect it has on the health of the victims or of the sufferers.

Primary prevention using HIV AIDS as an example is a very important measure.

These campaigns include information about HIV AIDS. This information is not just limited to health facilities but to different places where people are, such as parks, markets, places of worship, town union meetings, association or age grade meetings and so on.

When these campaigns go on, they should also be told of the things to do to avoid getting these diseases.

They should be told of the importance of lifestyle modifications and all that.

The aim is to reduce the risk of contracting the virus.

At the end of the day, when it’s done correctly, this will reduce the number of people that are being infected newly with HIV AIDS.

What are the challenges of primary prevention of disease?

1) People’s knowledge towards the diseases.

Some people don’t even know about some of these diseases.

Some are ignorant of the harm some diseases may cause, so this makes it difficult for them to comply.

However, with good education, a good sensitization, they will be able to take care of this.

2) Poor attitude towards health

Some people take their health nonchalantly.

Even when you do campaigns or talk to them, they do not listen as much as they should.

This makes it challenging for health educators and people that spread these campaigns about health as they go from place to place, because these ones have made up their minds not to listen.

Sadly for some of them, they only listen or see the reality when they now come down with the disease.

3) Language or cultural barriers.

Sometimes people that go to spread these messages are not indigenous people of the place and they don’t know the customs so it’s very difficult to penetrate or to be able to talk to the people in the language that they will understand.

When it comes to disseminating health information, carrying people along in this campaign. They need to get down to their level. They need to understand why they should do this.


We have seen some examples of primary prevention

Primary prevention remains one of the best approaches to disease prevention because it saves the problem of having to treat the disease.
Unnecessary cost as well as disease mortality and morbidity


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